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Résumés

BONE Jonathan A.
À la recherche d’un Komsomol perdu : qui a construit Komsomol`sk-na-Amure et pourquoi

RES 71/1

Le refaçonnage stalinien de l’Union soviétique des années 1920-1930 s’est manifesté – entre autres – dans le battage fait autour de plusieurs grands travaux : le chemin de fer Turkménistan — Sibérie, le grand barrage de Dnepropetrovsk, le complexe métallurgique dispersé au milieu des montagnes de l’Oural. Dans l’Extrême-Orient soviétique, le projet le plus célèbre est la prétendue "ville des jeunes", à savoir Komsomol’sk-na-Amure. Selon l’interprétation officielle, cette ville industrielle a été construite, en grande partie, par les volontaires du Komsomol : ce sont eux qui, sur ordre du parti bolchevique, ont établi un puissant avant-poste communiste dans l’étendue déserte du Daľnevostočnyj kraj. Puisque les tropes dominants de l’histoire des années staliniennes sont l’ironie et la tragédie, les lecteurs bien informés peuvent émettre des doutes sur cette version des événements. Et c’est avec raison, comme le montre le présent article. Ironiquement, les komsomol’cy n’ont guère participé à la construction de "leur" ville. Tragiquement, elle a été édifiée essentiellement grâce au travail des prisonniers du système de l’OGPOu/NKVD. Explorant en détail les événements et les circonstances locaux de la construction de Komsomol`sk, l’auteur apporte quelques clarifications générales sur les mobilisations du travail à l’époque de Staline et la métastase du Goulag.


CHERNOLUTSKAYA E.N.
The `Passportization’ of the Soviet Far-Eastern Population (1933-1934)

RES 71/1

The article by E. N. Chernolutskaya is devoted to the introduction of the internal passport system in the Soviet Far East between 1932 and 1934. The author presents this action as a stage of establishing total administrative-police control over the Soviet population during the period of implementation of the Stalinist state. The peculiarities of the passportization process are shown in comparison with most of other parts in the country, such as the limitation for residence of the population considered as `unreliable’ and the relocation of more than 50,000 inhabitants of the region. The article is written on the basis of little or unknown documents of the Khabarovsk State Archives.


ELANTSEVA O. P.
Railway Construction in the Russian Far East During the 1930s : Characteristics of the Labor Force and Aspects of Its Exploitation

RES 71/1

The article by O. P. Elantseva discusses the utilization of forced labor in the 1930s during the construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline railway and the second track of the Trans-Siberian Railway, as part of the project to exploit the Eastern areas of the USSR. General trends and the specific conditions of prisoners are described, such as life and labor conditions, as well as organizational forms of labor achievement.


JAROSZ Dariusz, PASZTOR Maria
The policy of communist authorities in Poland as seen through rumors in the years 1949-1953

RES 71/2

The article deals with the image of the Polish Communist authorities during the period of deep Stalinism (1949-1953) in the light of common knowledge and rumors circulating among the ’ordinary people’ in Poland. The study is based mainly on information collected by the Polish political policy (bezpieczenstwo) and local committees of the Polish Communist Party.
1. The common knowledge reveals much about the fears and the hopes of Polish society during the Stalin era.
2. The main factor which accelerated gossip and rumors was the difficulty in acceding to credible information about the real situation in Poland. However the circulation of rumors was also partly favored by censorship as a means of controlling society. The Polish speaking radio stations existing in the West during the Stalin period (first of all Radio Free Europe) were very important sources of knowledge about Poland and the rest of the world, but listening to those broadcasts was banned by Communist law.
3. Among the major themes studied by the authors are the collectivization of agriculture, the expected outbreak of the third. world war, the provision of food, the limitations of human rights and the persecution of the Catholic Church.
4. Rumors show that a remarkable increase of optimism in Poland follows Stalin’s death in March 1953.


MÁRTON-DOMEYKO Agnès

Polska w świetle francuskiej opinii publicznej 1945-1948

Figaro i Le Monde są w tym okresie jedynymi znaczącymi dziennikami, które regularnie informują francuskich czytelników o dokonujących się nad Wisłą przemianach. Uznając na wstępie kwestię polską jako pierwszoplanową, Le Monde zachęca polskich polityków do szeroko pojętych kompromisów i zrozumienia, że dla Polski czas wyboru minął bezpowrotnie. Polityka sowiecka, aczkolwiek brutalna i bezwzględna jest uzasadniona, gdyż bezpieczeństwo Związku Radzieckiego, któremu nota bene Polacy zawdzięczają wyzwolenie spod jarzma niemieckiego, wymaga przyjaźnie nastawionej Polski. Le Figaro posuwa się do stwierdzenia, że czas już najwyższy, aby Polska przestała, « jak to czyniła za czasu Веска, flirtować z Niemcami ». Sprzymierzona z Francją i ze Związkiem Radzieckim, ma ona « powrócić do swej historycznej misji, jaką jest trzymanie straży przeciw Niemcom, odwiecznym wrogom Słowian ». Dopiero w 1947 roku, J. Schwoebel uzna komunistów winnych za zerwanie z ludowcami i socjalistami, którzy okazali szczerą chęć do współpracy, ale gazeta nie wspomina o komunistycznych metodach zwalczania politycznych przeciwników. Od chwili utworzenia PZPR w 1948 roku, sprawy polskie przestają interesować francuskich obserwatorów. Wiele miejsca poświecą się armii Andersa. Le Monde domaga się jak najszybszego rozwiązania tej kwestii, która niepotrzebnie zakłóca spokój między Aliantami. NSZ (Narodowe Siły Zbrojne) stanowią następny przejaw, jakże niestrawnej dla zagranicznego demokraty, polskiej reakcji. Członków tej nacjonalistycznej organizacji przedstawia się jako nieodpowiedzialną bandę przestępców, która terroryzuje ludność cywilną, i jest finansowana przez Andersa. Przemilczając akty przemocy lub prezdstawiajac je jako walkę z terroryzmem, oba dzienniki przedstawiają szerzącą się przemoc jako normalny proces w zaistniałej po wojnie sytuacji, a udział komunistów w rządzie jako zjawisko ogólnoeuropejskie, stawiając znak równości między koalicyjnymi rządami Francji, Polski, Austrii, Czechosłowacji, Włoch itd. Wszystkich przeciwników nowej władzy oskarża się za brak realizmu. Zaciekły anty- sowietyzm Polaków niweczy wszelki konstruktywny wysiłek i zmusza nową władzę do niepopularnych posunięć wobec oponentów. Należy więc stwierdzić, że w tym przełomowym okresie, sprawa polska byla odbierana poprzez pryzmat politycznego realizmu, który nakazywał poświęcić Polskę na ołtarzu przyjaźni ze Związkiem Radzieckim. Dlatego wszelkie drażliwe kwesie są albo pominięte milczeniem, albo przedstawione w krzywym świetle propagandy komunistycznej. Nawet prawicowy Le Figaro odmwia chociażby moralnego wsparcia dla demokratycznej opozycji, walczącej w imię wspólnych ideałów.


REMIZOVSKI V. I.
Pages of the History of the Sakhalin Oil Industry

RES 71/1

Viktor Remizovskij’s article is devoted to the history of the oil industry on Sakhalin, from the discovery of oil on the site of Okha in 1878-79 to its development during the first two Five-Year Plans and its almost standstill during the Stalinist purges of the 1930s. Detailed information is given on the contribution of Russian, Japanese, and other foreign geologists, the creation of the Soviet-owned trust ’Saxalinneft’’in 1928 and its infrastructure, with figures concerning the quantity of extracted oil between 1930 and 1936. The article investigates the history of administrative measures taken to ensure the development of the industry and of its social aspects, such as the Stakhanovite movement. Drawing from archival sources, local newspapers, journals and private documents, the author then focuses on the massive repressions of the personnel of Saxalinneft’ in 1936-38, the fate of many directing cadres, specialists, Party members, and industrial workers, and the catastrophic consequences of the purges on the industry itself.


TOROPOV A.A.
Korean Emigration in the Russian Far East, Second Half of the XIXth Century — 1937

RES 71/1

Aleksander Toropov is Director of the Russian State Historical Archive of the Russian Far East in Vladivostok. Drawing on extensive archival material, his article is devoted to the Korean presence in the Russian Far East from 1860 to 1937. After retracing the migration of Korean populations to the southern part of the Russian Far East in the nineteenth century, the article focuses on the life of the Korean population during Soviet rule and its deportation in 1937.


VASILIEVA E. V. T
The Development of the Soviet Scientific Intelligentsia in the Russian Far

RES 71/1

Elena Vasilieva’s article investigates the development of the Soviet technical intelligentsia in the Russian Far East during the first three decades of Soviet power and gives insight into the fate of many local institutions and personalities. The very limited amount of scholars working in the Far East – mainly professors of the Vladivostok State University and Polytechnic Institute – grew noticeably during the civil war. During the 1920s, they responded to the relatively tolerant attitude of the authorities and security organs by an attitude made of apolitical expectation and growing concern about their usefulness. Starting with the proletarization of its students in 1923, the Sovietization of the Far-Eastern intelligentsia increased at the end of the 1920s when the fallout of the Shakhty Trial and the overall assault on the `bourgeois intelligentsia’ reached the region. The stratification of this particular group of the population deepened, gaining momentum during the purges, when institutes were closed and hundreds of scientific collaborators were shot or sent to labor camps. One of the consequences of the expansion and proximity of the labor camp system in the Far East was that the frontier between freedom and imprisonment was blurred. Although the consequences of the Sovietization of the technical intelligentsia undoubtedly had a negative result in terms of professionalism and level of knowledge, the way it adapted to the specific historical circumstances shows the limitations of Soviet totalitarianism.


SVETSINSKAÏA Irina
Verbal prefix VY- in modern russian language : study of the semantic and syntactic features

RES 71/3-4

The results of this study confirms the hypothesis based on D. Paillard’s approach according to which the invariant is situated on the functional and not on the semantic level, unlike the approaches consisting in the search for the invariant on the levels of concrete meanings (particularly in the spatial meaning). He suggests describing the verbal prefixes as `relators’ (in terms of a ’scenario’).
The vy- prefix establishes a relation between X (`repéré’) et Y (`repère’). In the statements containing the verbs with vy-, the prefix has the role of the predicative, as it expresses the X-vy-Y2 `event’ : X appears to be in Y2 (space or state which belongs to Y domain divided in two zones Y1 and Y2, with a boundary between them). Y2’s characteristics are determined in relation to Y1’s characteristics : Y1 and Y2 are in a binary opposition. Y2 is not only a complementary set to Y1, but it also has its own status, as the division into Y1 and Y2 exists prior to the `intervention’ of the vy- prefix.
The study of a large range of werbs with vy- prefix in their contexts allowed to characterize Y1 and Y2 and to establish the functioning regularities of the prefix, verb stem and context for each group of verbs singled out on the basis of formal criteria derived by semantic and syntactic analysis of the verbs with vy- prefix in the main types of situations arising from the nature of Y and the boundary separating Y1 and Y2. Comparison, allowing for the semantics and syntax of the direct objects and/or adverbal modifiers of verbs with vy- prefix and verbs formed from the same stems with other prefixes (s-, po-, iz-) and considered to be ’synonyms’, leads to the statement that this `synonymy’ doesn’t stand on the level of the prefixes, or isolated prefixal verbs, but in certain contexts on the level of the prefixal verbs.


DEMADRE Emmanuel
La quête mystique de Vladislav Khodasevich : essai d’interprétation de l’œuvre du dernier symboliste russe

RES 71/3-4

Si l’œuvre poétique de Vladislav Khodasevich (1886-1939) a retrouvé la place qu’elle mérite, on peut s’interroger sur la signification et la portée de cette œuvre, prise dans la totalité de son déroulement.
Nous pensons que le fil conducteur en est une quête mystique authentique, qui en explique la complexité, les contradictions et la dynamique irrégulière jusqu’au silence des dix dernières années.
Nous avons étudie les différentes étapes du parcours de Khodasevich à partir d’un corpus de poèmes de jeuness (1904-1906), inédits jusqu’en 1989, qui montre combien son aspiration à la transcendance – nostalgie du monde originel de l’âme – est d’emblée liée à un rejet radical du terrestre. Après d’échec de cette phase initiale, que permet de mieux situer le décadentisme de son premier recueil, Molodost(1908), et une tentative d’acceptation sereine dans Stchastlivy domik (1914), il retrouve dans Putëm zerna (1920), point culminant de son parcours, le sens d’une renaissance spirituelle, et même s’il ne parvient pas à cette révélation directe de Dieu qu’il avait ardemment désirée au début de sa quête, il atteint à des instants de lumineuse plénitude ou la réalité semble se transfigurer dans des reflets d’éternité. Mais son rapport au monde très négatif se manifeste à nouveau dans Tiaj‘laïa lira (1922), et aboutit dans Evropeïskaïa notch(1927), composé durant l’émigration, au sentiment d’un enfermement inéluctable dans un univers dégradé.
Malgré une évidente spécificité (classicisme des références et de la forme, distanciation ironique et acuité réaliste du regard), l’œuvre de Khodasevich, indissociable d’une conception, nous est ainsi apparue comme relevant fondamentalement de l’idéalisme mystique du symbolisme russe.

DEMADRE Emmanuel

RES 71/3-4

The mystic quest of Vladislav Khodasevich : an approach to the poetry of the last Russian Symbolist

The poetry of Vladislav Xodasevič (1886-1939) has now regained the place it deserves ; however the significance of this work when seen in its full chronological development raises interesting questions.
We think the main thread of his poetry is a truly mystic quest, which accounts for its complexity, its contradictions and its irregular dynamics up to the silence of his last ten years.
We have studied the successive stages of Xodasevič’s poetic career, starting from a corpus of early poems (1904-1906), unpublished until 1989, which shows how deeply his yearning for transcendence — for a return to the native world of the soul — was linked to a radical rejection of this world.
The failure of the initial phase of his quest gives a better understanding of the decadent character of his first book of verse, Molodosť (1908), whereas the main theme of the second, Sčastlivyj domik (1914) is an attempt at serene acceptance. However, in Putëm žerna (1920), the culminating point of his search, he finds his way to a spiritual reawakening, and even though he does not attain the direct revelation of God he had so ardently longed for at the beginning of his quest, he reaches moments of luminous plenitude when reality seems to be transfigured by reflections of eternity. But his very negative outlook on this world can be felt again in Tjaželaja lira (1922), and finally in Evropejskaja noc’ (1921) — composed during the emigration — , it leads him to an inescapable feeling of imprisonment in a degraded world.
In spite of its singularity (classicism in cultural references and style, ironic distancing and an acute vision of prosaic reality), the work of Xodasevič because it is inseparable from a conception of poetry that unites the search for transcendence with poetic inspiration, appears to us as fundamentally belonging to the mystical idealism of Russian Symbolism